Low levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) are also seen in AD with implications for the application of Hericium erinaceous in the management of this condition (see discussion on Dementia). In addition, synaptic degeneration, with loss of synaptic density proteins, has been shown to be a key mode of neurodegeneration in AD with beta-amyloid (Abeta) identified as a cause of synaptic dysfunction and contributor to AD pathology. Ganodermalucidum aqueous extract, which has traditionally been considered to have anti-ageing properties, has been shown to significantly inhibit Abeta-induced synaptotoxicity and also inhibit Abeta-triggered DEVD cleavage in a dose dependent manner with potential clinical application in management of AD1. 1. Antagonizing beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity of the antiaging fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Lai C.S, Yu M.S, Yuen W.H, So K.F, Zee S.Y, Chang R.C. Brain Res. 2008;1190:215-24.