Nanba et al reported that 7 of 12 patients with liver cancer responded to a combination of Grifola frondosa fruiting body (4-6g/day) and purified polysaccharide extract (MD fraction – 40-150mg/day),1. Studies using implanted sarcoma 180 as a model for liver cancer have shown inhibition of tumour rates of 52.8%, 56.6% and 51.9% when given polysaccharide extracts of Flammulina velutipes, Lentinus edodes and Agaricus brasiliensis respectively2 and a 71.6% increase in lifespan of tumour-bearing mice with Polyporus umbellatus polysaccharide extract (i.p.) on its own and a 119.9% increase when given in conjunction with mitomycin C3. Several in vitro studies on Ganoderma lucidum and G. lucidum triterpenes have demonstrated cell growth inhibition and anti-invasive effects by multiple mechanisms including suppression of protein kinase C, activation of protein kinases, G2-phase cell cycle arrest, inactivation of MAPK/ERK signal transduction pathway and inhibition of the binding activities of NF-kB and AP-14-9. In a human tumour xenograft model, a doseresponse inhibition was also observed in the average size, volume, and weight of tumours upon oral administration of G. lucidum extract10. Antrodia camphorata has traditionally been used in the treatment of liver cancer in Taiwan. In vitro studies confirm its apoptotic effects on human liver cancer cell lines and a number of promising cases have been reported combining it with conventional treatment in cases of advanced liver cancer11,12. Cordyceps sinensis, Pleurotus ostreatus and Inonotus obliquus have all shown in vitro efficacy against liver cancer cell lines13-15. 1. Maitake D-fraction: healing and preventive potential for cancer. Nanba H. J Orthomolecular Med. 1997;12:43-49
2. Inhibitory activity of polysaccharide extracts from three kinds of
edible fungi on proliferation of human hepatoma SMMC-7721
cell and mouse implanted S180 tumour. Jiang S.M, Xiao Z.M,
Xu Z.H. World J Gastroenterol. 1999;5(5):404-407
3. Combined effects of chuling (Polyporus umbellatus) extract and
mitomycin C on experimental liver cancer. You J.S, Hau D.M,
Chen K.T, Huang H.F. Am J Chin Med. 1994;22(1):19-28
4. Triterpene-enriched extracts from Ganoderma lucidum inhibit
growth of hepatoma cells via suppressing protein kinase C,
activating mitogen-activated protein kinases and G2-phase
cell cycle arrest. Lin S.B, Li C.H, Lee S.S, Kan LS. Life Sci.
5. Ganoderic acid produced from submerged culture of
Ganoderma lucidum induces cell cycle arrest and cytotoxicity in
human hepatoma cell line BEL7402. Yang H.L. Biotechnol Lett.
6. Antitumour activity of the sporoderm-broken germinating
spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Liu X, Yuan J.P, Chung C.K,
Chen X.J. Cancer Lett. 2002;182(2):155-61
7. Ganoderiol F, a ganoderma triterpene, induces senescence in
hepatoma HepG2 cells. Chang U.M, Li C.H, Lin L.I, Huang C.P,
Kan L.S, Lin S.B. Life Sci. 2006;79(12):1129-39
8. The anti-invasive effect of lucidenic acids isolated from a new
Ganoderma lucidum strain. Weng C.J, Chau C.F, Chen K.D,
Chen D.H, Yen G.C. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007;51(12):1472-7
9. Lucidenic acid inhibits PMA-induced invasion of human
hepatoma cells through inactivating MAPK/ERK signal
transduction pathway and reducing binding activities of NFkappaB
and AP-1. Weng C.J, Chau C.F, Hsieh Y.S, Yang S.F,
Yen G.C. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29(1): 147-56
10. Inhibitory effects of Ganoderma lucidum on tumourigenesis and
metastasis of human hepatoma cells in cells and animal models.
Weng C.J, Chau C.F, Yen G.C, Liao J.W, Chen D.H, Chen K.D.
J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57(11):5049-57
11. Apoptotic effects of extract from Antrodia camphorata fruiting
bodies in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Hsu Y.L,
Kuo Y.C, Kuo P.L, Ng L.T, Kuo Y.H, Lin C.C. Cancer Lett.
12. Niuchangchih (Antrodia camphorata) and its potential in
treating liver diseases. Ao Z.H, Xu Z.H, Lu Z.M, Xu HY, Zhang
X.M, Dou W.F. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;121(2):194-212
13. Cordyceps sinensis increases the expression of major histocompatibility
complex class II antigens on human hepatoma
cell line HA22T/VGH cells. Chiu J.H, Ju C.H, Wu L.H, Lui
W.Y, Wu C.W, Shiao M.S, Hong C.Y. Am J Chin Med.
14. A new lectin with highly potent antihepatoma and antisarcoma
activities from the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Wang
H, Gao J, Ng T.B. Biochem Biophys Res Commun.
15. Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) induces G0/G1 arrest and
apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Youn M.J, Kim J.K,
Park S.Y, Kim Y, Kim S.J, Lee J.S, Chai K.Y, Kim H.J, Cui M.X,
So H.S, Kim K.Y, Park R. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(4):511-7